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We work on geological factors and processes relevant for shallow geothermal energy systems such as ground source heat pump and groundwater heat pump systems. Our previous contributions cover new semi-analytical line source-based models for borehole heat exchanger simulation, integrating ground heat flux, groundwater flow and mechanical thermal dispersion. We have presented concepts for fast simulation of open-loop groundwater systems and studied thermal propagation of heat plumes. The model-based work is complemented by enhanced field testing methods such as thermal response test in case of groundwater flow and thermal tracer test for delineation of plume propagation in the subsurface. Moreover, we are contributing with our work to harmonisation of policies for thermal subsurface use.

Benz, S., Menberg, K., Bayer, P., Kurylyk. B. 2022. Shallow subsurface

heat recycling is a sustainable global space heating alternative. – *Nature Communications*, accepted.

Van de Ven, A., Koenigsdorff, R., Bayer, P. 2021. Enhanced Steady-State Solution of the Infinite Moving Line Source Model for the Thermal Design of Grouted Borehole Heat Exchangers with Groundwater Advection. – *Geosciences*, 11(10), 410.

Attard, G., Bayer, P., Rossier, Y., Blum, P., Eisenlohr, L. (2020). A novel concept for managing thermal interference between geothermal systems in cities. *Renewable Energy, 145*, 914-924.

Pophillat, W., Bayer, P., Teyssier, E., Blum, P., Attard, G. (2020). Impact of groundwater heat pump systems on subsurface temperature under variable advection, conduction and dispersion. *Geothermics, 83*, 101721.

Zhang, B., Gu, K., Shi, B., Liu, C., Bayer, P., Wei, G., Gong, X., Yang, L. (2020). Actively heated fiber optics based thermal response test: A field demonstration. *Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 134*, 110336.

Bayer, P., Guillaume, A., Blum, P., Menberg, K. (2019). The geothermal potential of cities. *Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 106*, 17-30.

Gossler, M. A., Bayer, P., Zosseder, K. (2019). Experimental investigation of thermal retardation and local thermal non-equilibrium effects on heat transport in highly permeable, porous aquifers. *Journal of Hydrology, 578*, 124097.

Tissen, C., Menberg, K., Bayer, P., Blum, P. (2019). Meeting the demand: geothermal heat supply rates for an urban quarter in Germany. *Geothermal Energy, 7*(1), 9.

Pophillat, W., Attard, G., Bayer, P., Hecht-Méndez, J., Blum, P. (2018). Analytical solutions for predicting thermal plumes of groundwater heat pump systems. *Renewable Energy, 147*, 2696-2707.

Rivera, J. A., Blum, P., Bayer, P. (2017). Increased ground temperatures in urban areas: Estimation of the technical geothermal potential. *Renewable Energy, 103*, 388-400.

Rivera, J. A., Blum, P., Bayer, P. (2016). Influence of spatially variable ground heat flux on closed-loop geothermal systems: Line source model with nonhomogeneous Cauchy-type top boundary conditions. *Applied Energy, 180*, 572-585.

Rivera, J. A., Blum, P., Bayer, P. (2016). A finite line source model with Cauchy-type top boundary conditions for simulating near surface effects on borehole heat exchangers. *Energy, 98*, 50-63.

Rivera, J. A., Blum, P., Bayer, P. (2015). Ground energy balance for borehole heat exchangers: Vertical fluxes, groundwater and storage. *Renewable Energy, 83*, 1341-1351.

Rivera, J. A., Blum, P., Bayer, P. (2015). Analytical simulation of groundwater flow and land surface effects on thermal plumes of borehole heat exchangers. *Applied Energy, 146*, 421-433.

Wagner, V., Bayer, P., Bisch, G., Kübert, M., Blum, P. (2014). Hydraulic characterization of aquifers by thermal response testing: Validation by large-scale tank and field experiments. *Water Resources Research, 50*(1), 71-85.

Wagner, V., Li, T., Bayer, P., Leven, C., Dietrich, P., Blum, P. (2014). Thermal tracer testing in a sedimentary aquifer: field experiment (Lauswiesen, Germany) and numerical simulation. *Hydrogeology Journal, 22*(1), 175-187.

Hähnlein, S., Bayer, P., Ferguson, G., Blum, P. (2013). Sustainability and policy for the thermal use of shallow geothermal energy. *Energy Policy, 59*, 914-925.

de Paly, M., Hecht-Méndez, J., Beck, M., Blum, P., Zell, A., Bayer, P. (2012). Optimization of energy extraction for closed shallow geothermal systems using linear programming. *Geothermics, 43*, 57-65.

Wagner, V., Bayer, P., Kübert, M., Blum, P. (2012). Numerical sensitivity study of thermal response tests. *Renewable Energy, 41*, 245-253.

Molina-Giraldo, N., Bayer, P., Blum, P. (2011). Evaluating the influence of thermal dispersion on temperature plumes from geothermal systems using analytical solutions. *International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 50*(7), 1223-1231.

Molina-Giraldo, N., Blum, P., Zhu, K., Bayer, P., Fang, Z. (2011). A moving finite line source model to simulate borehole heat exchangers with groundwater advection. *International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 50*(12), 2506-2513.

Haehnlein, S., Bayer, P., Blum, P. (2010). International legal status of the use of shallow geothermal energy. *Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14*(9), 2611-2625.

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