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Heating up the subsurface

Heating up the subsurface

Heating up the subsurface

The thermal regime in the shallow subsurface is experiencing a fundamental change. Urbanisation, global warming and active heat injection raise the temperature in soil and groundwater bodies. We study in particular the mechanisms of so-called subsurface urban heat islands evolving beneath many cities. Moreover, we elucidate the role of climate change on subsurface temperatures, as observed in long-term temperature time series and temperature logs measured in wells.


Noethen, M., Hemmerle, H., Menberg, K., Epting, J., Benz, S. A., Blum, P., & Bayer, P. (2023). Thermal impact of underground car parks on urban groundwater. Science of The Total Environment, 166572.

Benz, S., Menberg, K., Bayer, P., Kurylyk. B. (2022). Shallow subsurface heat recycling is a sustainable global space heating alternative. Nature Communications, 13, 3962.

Hemmerle H., Ferguson G., Blum P., Bayer P. (2022). The evolution of the geothermal potential of a subsurface urban heat island. Environmental Research Letters, 17, 084018.

Noethen M., Hemmerle H. and Bayer P. (2022). Sources, intensities, and implications of subsurface warming in times of climate change. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, doi: 10.1080/10643389.2022.2083899.

Zhang, T., Liu, C., Bayer, P., Zhang, L., Gong, X., Gu, K., Shi, B. (2022). City-wide geothermal monitoring and analysis of the factors of contributing factors to shallow subsurface temperature variability in Nanjing, China. Renewable Energy, 199, 1105-1115.

Blum, P., Menberg, K., Koch, F., Benz, S. A., Tissen, C., Hemmerle, H., Bayer, P. (2021). Is thermal use of groundwater a pollution?. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 239, 103791.

Hemmerle, H., & Bayer, P. (2020). Climate Change Yields Groundwater Warming in Bavaria, Germany. Frontiers in Earth Science, 8(523).

Bayer, P., Guillaume, A., Blum, P., Menberg, K. (2019). The geothermal potential of cities. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 106, 17-30.

Hemmerle, H., Hale, S., Dressel, I., Benz, S. A., Attard, G., Blum, P., Bayer, P. (2019). Estimation of groundwater temperatures in Paris, France. Geofluids, 2019, 5246307.

Benz, S. A., Bayer, P., Blum, P., Hamamoto, H., Arimoto, H., Taniguchi, M. (2018). Comparing anthropogenic heat input and heat accumulation in the subsurface of Osaka, Japan. Science of The Total Environment, 643, 1127-1136.

Benz, S. A., Bayer, P., Winkler, G., Blum, P. (2018). Recent trends of groundwater temperatures in Austria. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 22(6), 3143-3154.

Benz, S. A., Bayer, P., Blum, P. (2017). Global patterns of shallow groundwater temperatures. Environmental Research Letters, 12(3), 034005.

Benz, S. A., Bayer, P., Blum, P. (2017). Identifying anthropogenic anomalies in air, surface and groundwater temperatures in Germany. Science of The Total Environment, 584-585, 145-153.

Bayer, P., Rivera, J. A., Schweizer, D., Schärli, U., Blum, P., Rybach, L. (2016). Extracting past atmospheric warming and urban heating effects from borehole temperature profiles. Geothermics, 64, 289-299.

Benz, S. A., Bayer, P., Goettsche, F. M., Olesen, F. S., Blum, P. (2016). Linking surface urban heat islands with groundwater temperatures. Environmental Science & Technology, 50(1), 70-78.

Benz, S. A., Bayer, P., Menberg, K., Jung, S., Blum, P. (2015). Spatial resolution of anthropogenic heat fluxes into urban aquifers. Science of The Total Environment, 524-525, 427-439.

Zhu, K., Bayer, P., Grathwohl, P., Blum, P. (2015). Groundwater temperature evolution in the subsurface urban heat island of Cologne, Germany. Hydrological Processes, 29(6), 965-978.

Menberg, K., Blum, P., Kurylyk, B. L., Bayer, P. (2014). Observed groundwater temperature response to recent climate change. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 18(11), 4453-4466.

Menberg, K., Blum, P., Schaffitel, A., Bayer, P. (2013). Long Term Evolution of Anthropogenic Heat Fluxes into a Subsurface Urban Heat Island. Environmental Science & Technology, 47(17), 9747-9755.

Zhu, K., Blum, P., Ferguson, G., Balke, K.-D., Bayer, P. (2010). The geothermal potential of urban heat islands. Environmental Research Letters, 5(4), 044002.

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